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Synchronization and concurrency before Java 5

Prior to Java 5, there were basically five means to correctly synchronize data between threads ("shared" here means "accessed by multiple threads"):

For most programmers, the first two of these are probably the bread-and-butter means of synchronizing data. I suspect that the last two or three on this list are unknown to many otherwise experienced Java programmers. (The last is actually rare and generally unrecommended, but we consider it for completeness.) We'll review each of these methods briefly here, starting with the synchronized keyword.

Article written by Neil Coffey (@BitterCoffey).

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Java programming articles and tutorials on this site are written by Neil Coffey (@BitterCoffey). Suggestions are always welcome if you wish to suggest topics for Java tutorials or programming articles, or if you simply have a programming question that you would like to see answered on this site. Most topics will be considered. But in particular, the site aims to provide tutorials and information on topics that aren't well covered elsewhere, or on Java performance information that is poorly described or understood. Suggestions may be made via the Javamex blog (see the site's front page for details).
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